In the name of the Croatian Royal Council, NGO, we are honored to invite all people of interest in this ceremonial commemoration of the 100 years since Emperor and King Karl IV's Trialist manifest, unification of Croatian Crown Lands and 100 years since the end of the Great war. The commemoration will be held on 21st October 2018, Zagreb (Croatia) at 12:00
12:00 Gathering in front of the Croatian National Theater in Zagreb
12:15 March to the Rudolf barracks (National Theater-Deželićeva street-Austria street)
12:35 Gathering in front of the barracks of HRH Crown Prince Rudolf Habsburg (Austria street)
12:40 Commemorative speech:
-Ante Brešić pl. Mikulić (Trialist manifest and the reorganization of the Habsburg monarchy)
-Ante Franić (Legal significance of the Trialist manifest for contemporary Croatia)
-Filip Katanić (Croats in the Great war)
13:20 Laying flowers and candles on the memorial to the fallen Croatian soldiers in the Great war
13:30 End of the commemoration
(Croatian flag with the COA of Lands of Zvonimirs Crown)
With the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867 and the Croatian-Hungarian compromise of 1868 the legal framework for the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy was laid down. The Monarchy was compromised out of two political and territorial entities, the Lands of the (Austrian) Imperial Council and the Crown Union (Lands of crown of St Stephan) of the Kingdom of Hungary and the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia. Although Croatia was recognized as the third political entity being regarded as a political nation with its own territory, and its flag being the third official one (the Monarchy didn't have a single, but used the three Austrian, Hungarian and Croatian flags at the same time), its territory was divided. Only Croatia-Slavonia enjoyed statehood and autonomy. While Dalmatia was regarded as a province of Austria. The question of the city of Rijeka was pushed aside, as it became a Corpus separatum until its status be legally resolved. This in regards to the rights and statehood which the Triune Kingdom of Croatia enjoyed in 1848 was seen and understood as a major loss of those same rights and territorial unity.
(Small COA of the KuK monarchy, 1916)
(Official flag of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia... used from 1876-1918)
After the Berling congress in 1878 when the KuK monarchy was given rights over Bosnia-Herzegovina, most of the fighting was done by Croatian troops as well as military leaders. With the liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Ottomans in October 1878, the Croatian Royal Sabor (Parliament) send a demand of unification of Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina with Croatia-Slavonia, which were all seen as Croatian crown lands. Since the legal status was still not certain of Bosnia-Herzegovina HIRM Emperor and King Franz Joseph I, fearing a Great European war turned down the proposal. The next opportunity was seen during the 1908 annexation crises when Bosnia and Herzegovina was officially annexed. Since war threats from Serbia and Russia were a reality, even the Croatian legion was formed in Bosnia-Herzegovina to repel the possible Serbian attacks. They where highly patriotic and loyal to the Emperor and King. At that time the Hungarian side vetoed the proposal of the Croatian Royal Sabor for unification. The Hungarian thought that a strong unified Slav component would be a threat to their rule and influence in the KuK monarchy.
(Battle for Jajce, liberation of Bosnia-Herzegovina 1878, Karl Pippich)
(COA of Bosnia-Herzegovina 1878-1918)
(Proclamation of the Annexation in 1908 and call for the Croatian legion)
HIRM Emperor and King Franz Joseph I although remembered as a benevolent and caring ruler, he was not keen on political reforms in the KuK monarchy. For Him it was all ready a precedence to give into demands of Hungarian nationalist with whom he had to share power since 1867. He lived by a personal code in which he saw himself as the last ruler of the old order and as such It was His duty to protect his peoples (nations) from their politicians. Franz Joseph was however regarded as a Monarch who cared about the well being of his subjects, but not that sympathetic towards national political movements. Personally he did have heavy family losses, specially murders and assassinations which decimated his closer family (he lost his brother, son, wife ect)
(Emperor and King Franz Joseph I)
(Empress and Queen Consort Elisabeth)
The first great opportunity for the reorganization of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy into a trialist Austro-Hungaro-Croatian, or even a federation was seen in his successors. HRH Crown Prince Rudolf has proven himself a good reader of the nation, as well as liked by the people. His death ended that possibility, and a new heir was nominated with Archduke Franz Ferdinand. HRH Archduke Franz Ferdinand was truly a man of the words, he all ready was planing a trialsit reorganization, fearing the influence from both domestic Hungarians as well as Serbia and Romania. He specially regarded Croats to be a good and loyal third party which would bring at least for some times balance in the Monarchy. On the 28th June 1914 in Sarajevo he and his wife, Duchess Sophie, were both murdered by members of the Yugoslav radical movement Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia) which was supported and organized by the Serbian state sponsored Crna Ruka (Black Hand) terrorist organization. Serbia's main reason for the assassination was the fear of Him truly reorganizing the Monarchy, in which South Slavs would be united and equal, in their own country under the Croatian crown and Habsburg Monarch. This would be the end of the Serbian led Yugoslav idea and their views to expand to the West. The rest became history and the Monarchy entered a war with Serbia. The ties to other countries would link them and turn this local war into the first truly Global industrial war.
(Trialist proposition supported by Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 1905)
After the assassination in Sarajevo the next in line HRH Archduke Karl became the new heir to the KuK monarchy. Like his predecessor he was also a proponent of trialist and even federalist reorganization. With the death of the old aged Monarch in 1916, Karl became the new Emperor and King of the multinational KuK monarchy. From the start he showed favor for Croats who he regarded well. During his Croatian-Hungarian coronation ceremony in Budapest on the 28th December 1916 he broke the Hungarian-Croatian agreement and issued not a single coronation oath (which was by law) but held two separate ones, a Hungarian and a Croatian. In the Croatian he sided with Croatia on her legal rights by recognizing the unity of Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia with the city of Rijeka.
(Royal Family during the Croatian-Hungarian coronation in Budapest, 28th December 1916)
He all ready started politically supporting Croats in 1917, he visited Istria which was then part of Littoral Austria, but since it was historically populated and tied with Croatia he met the Croatian population and supported them there in a patriotic welcome. The same year the Croatian Royal Sabor (Parliament) send a request for unification of all Croatian Crown Lands into a single country, which King Karl IV supported, but the decision was vetoed by the Hungarian side. In 1918 seeing that is all ready the last hour for the Monarchy to reorganize, he went on his own initiative and issued his 16th October Manifest in which he called for federalization of the Monarchy, as well as Polish right on unification into a single Polish Kingdom. Even this initiative was influenced by the Hungarians, so he had to apply that his is only valid for the Austrian side of the Monarchy, and that the integrity of the Hungarian Crown will not be broken. Seeing this the pro Yugoslav National Council in Zagreb which was growing in power turned down the proclamation n the 17th October stating that its still unable to stand up to Hungarian hegemony in the Monarchy. Also the political climate in Croatia's capital Zagreb was changing, the more loyal Ban Ivan Baron Škrlec Lomnički was replaced in end of July of 1917 with a more neutral oriented Ban Antun pl. Mihalović. This shifted politics in regards to the National Council having more influence over the Government.
(Croatian Ban Ivan Baron Škrlec Lomnički during the ceremony of the opening of the Royal Sabor)
(Croatian patriotic gathering in 1915)
After the failed attempts on reorganization of the KuK monarchy on the 21st October 1918 a Croatian delegation led by pravaši parliament member Alexander Horvat, Ivan Frank and Joseph Pazman, as well as Croatian generals Lucas pl. Šnjarić and Michael pl. Mihaljević was received in Bad Ischl by King Karl IV who once again supported them and issued the Trialist manifest, stating to the delegation that they still need the consent of the Hungarian side. The next day 22nd October the delegation went to Budapest where it met Count Istvan Tisza who after listening to their proposal led them to Prime Minister Sándor Wekerle who agreed and held the Hungarian minister council session which confirmed and proclaimed the Trialist manifest legal for the Hungarian part of the KuK monarchy. The next day telegrams were send to all local governments and even celebrations were held in Zagreb and Varaždin.
(The KuK monarchy according to the Trialist reorganization from 21st October 1918)
The Trialist manifest in its articles defines the way in which Dalmatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatian lands in Littoral Austria (Istria) are united with Croatia-Slavonia, to form a single state known as Kingdom of Croatia. After which the Kingdom of Croatia steps out from the crown union with the Kingdom of Hungary, with a notice, that until Croatia becomes fully independent it can use the the organizational work of the common ministries it had before. The government in the Kingdom of Croatia is defined by the Ban from Zagreb (nominated by the King) and Viceban of Zadar (Dalmatia), Viceban of Sarajevo (Bosnia-Herzegovina) and eventually Viceban of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Also after the War the Grand Sabor (Parliament) would be establihsed as well as regional parliaments ann councils.
(Articles of the Trialist manifest send by telegram to regional governments, 23rd October 1918)
(Hungarian minister council session in Budapest, 22nd October 1918)
The telegram surprised even the Governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Habsburg and Croatian general Stjepan Baron Sarkotić pl. Lovćen, who on the 24th October reacted by sending telegrams to other leaders to act now before the trialist reorganization of the KuK monarchy before it is to late to fully implement it. As the Yugoslav movement and the pro Yugoslav National Council were gaining power in that time they forced that the Croatian State Sabor be held on 29th October 1918, during which it proclaimed unification of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia with Rijeka to sever all ties with Austria and Hungary as well as form a State of Slovens, Croats and Serbs. The Yugoslav movement at that time held a minor advantage but it did not have full support. Fearing that Croatian Field Marshal Svetozar Baron Boroević pl. Bojna would return and take control in Zagreb, they started arresting all loyal officials. Among them were Governor and General Sarkotić, Pravaši parliamentarian Horvat and many others. The National Council feared it so much, it hastily went with no consensus or voting for unification of the neutral State of Slovens, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, which resulted in the forming of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovnes (Yugoslavia). This outraged people, specially soldiers which were returning from the front and being unarmed by the National Council. On 5th December 1918 a grand rally and protest against the National Council and Yugoslavia took place, during which the National Council ordered to open fire killing the protesters on the main square.
(Austro-Hungarian warships raise Croatian flags in Pula, October 1918)
(Anti-Yugoslav protest, 5th December 1918)